- combining modern library planning with the local council development programme The Haram Model -

presented by David Beadle  in Trondheim at the CEPP European Library Training Programme for Librarians from East and South Europe  23.09.99


1.1 Definitions

1.2 Conditions 1.3 Purposes 1.4 Desired results 1.5 Library and community integration

2. The internal environment - analysis of resources and operations

An internal assessment is essentially a review of the present situation and a questioning of the state of things for the future. The need for statistics and self analysis wil show itself here. Comparative analyses are very useful, and we hope that on a national level research information is easily available to libraries wanting to develope locally.

2.1 Services

2.2 Customers 2.3 Funding/Income 2.4 Staff 2.5 Facilities 2.6 Performance - market research 2.7 Assessments and scenarios 2.8 Scenario planning 3. The external environment - analysis of society and the library's integration potential.

3.1 Geographical and non-geographical boundaries

  • Defining boundaries
  • 3.2 The European Union 3.3 Restructuring
      3.4 The public sector
  • Inherent desire to manage or direct restructuring

  • The public sector has taken a leading role in regional development

  • The state has not withdrawn its reponsibility for local development
  • 3.5 Attitudes to restructuring
    In all three sectors - public, civil and commercial - two groups will be generally active:
    3.6 Active forces in the 3 sectors in local/regional restructuring
    economic source
    restructuring always necessary
    social classes
    seldom defends market forces alone
    spontaneous or market based restructuring
    age groups
    tries to direct restructuring
    global potential
    clear geographical boundaries
    defends local and regional values
    public and commercial consumers
    potential voters
    human capital
    In recent years the forces affecting the three sectors can be summed up as follows: There is one  common element which brings all three sectors together in a necessary interdependency.: This forms the basis of Haram Public Library's overriding general policy:

    Areas where the library can be directly involved are shown in orange.
    Haram Public Library tries to find ways in which it can base its planning policy and arguments on central public sector planning policies:

    3.7 Influences behind restructuring processes

    1 1780-1830 Textiles - ready to wear clothing Canals - steam power
    2 1830-1880 Machine production and transport Railways - coal
    3 1880-1930 Electro-chemicals /Electro-engineering Electrical grid
    4 1930-1980 Mass production - fordism Roads, airports - fossil energies
    5 1980- Information technology Digital networks - electricity and petroleum
    3.8 The civil sector and restructuring processes
    3.9 Example of a local sector and its interpretation of  development


    3.10 Haram Public Library as a local actor - with or without power?

    3.10.1 Culture and information technology

    The public library today is in a special and priviledged position:

    3.10.2 Possible target areas for the library in a local development programme

    3.10.3 Strategy level: target area for the library: developing a strategy for the young as a user group

    Factors that can be remembered:

    3.10.4 Vision level: target area for the library: integration the local sector' s perception of quality of life:

    3.10.5 Integating/attaching the library to local development.


  • What are the decision making processes locally?
  • He may be your superior, but how much does he/she understand of these processes?
  • He may be your superior, but how much does he/she know about libraries?
  • Has a new post been established that will influence planning locally?
  • Do many issues come down provincial quarrelling?
  • Are there  "deviations" of democracy making it difficult to see where the power is:
  • Conditions:
  • The library chooses to be a constructive actor.
  • The library can make a contribution to local development.
  • The library will profit from being integrated into or simply attached to the development programme.
  • The initiative is ours.
  • Tactics:
  • Keep above provincial and sector quarrelling.
  • Insist on the major developments in our time.
  • Have scenarios for the library's development ready, so as to participate with confidence at short notice.
  • Keep the public sector's vision and goals in mind.
  • Emphasize common goals.
  • Seek alliance partners:
  • Education - individual teachers and/or schools.
  • Social services.
  • Project development.
  • 3.12 Conclusion : relating to the external environment

    3.13 Diagram of internal and external environment factors in library planning

    4. Regional and local planning
    Responsibilty for individual citizens Responsibilty for advising or coordinating library services
    Cooperation with local partners Cooperation with regional partners (eg. university)
    Support for local library initiatives Support for specialist libraries
    Record specialist needs Coordinating specialist staff
    Record special needs Arrange library training
    Promote library training Marketing
    Local publicity Provision for special groups (blind etc.)
    Coordination with educational initiatives Coordination with educational plans
    Record perceived trends Identify trends (e.g. literary needs)
    Local history collection Local historical depot
    Local network development Technical network development
    Staff training Professional network development
    Development programmes
    Personnel meetings Arrange conferences
    Interpret regional directives Interpret national directives
    Local planning Regional planning


    5. Library strategy development

    Our planning has to make statements which must not be confused:


    5.1 Values

    Statements about "us"
    Professional values - beliefs and guiding principles: Management values - our way of doing things:
    5.2 Vision
    Where statement: Where are we going? What is our role in an integrated society? If only we could?
    5.3 Mission

              How statement:   What is our mission? If the answer is to provide information, enlightenment, and educationour  mission statement must say something about the library which the bookshop or the cybercafe does or cannot say.

  • The mission statement, which can vary a lot in length,  should be:
  • Example:
  • More sentences may follow which focus and elaborate with keywords:
  • The mission statement should contain words that are also found frequently in the local/regional plan.
  • The mision statement has to linik to objectves
  • 5.4 Objectives : functional objectives

  • Formulating objective is demanding. At this level the spectrum of planning from mission to task can be viewed:



    Understanding Community focal point The library infrastructure MAY include smaller units to maintain customer service OR larger units to maintain complete services.
    Quality of life Culture Customers can be individuals OR families OR ethnic groups.
    Information Information Community Information OR Reference Service OR Tourisme OR Business information
    Knowledge  Education Independent, lifelong learning OR  Literacy OR Schools OR Students
    Leisure Leisure The library MAY be judged by the size of its resources OR by accuracy and speed of delivery.
    Stimulation Networking Meeting place OR Club OR Course centre OR Discussion groups
    Everybody Access 24 hrs electronic OR convenient hours at physical site OR both
    5.5 Strategy objectives and Goals

    Information technolgy as an example

    5.5.1 Specifying strategy objectives/goals = formulating tasks 5.6 Strategies
    The strategiey statement  answers the question  "how are we going to carry through our goals?"
    5.7 Summary of planning stages
    Aspiration : Where do we 
    want to be?
    Beliefs : How are our ways of doing things?

    Purpose: What is our business? who are our customers
    Why are we here? What do we do?
    Chosen objectives. Priorities.
    Directions: Where are we going?
    How shall we implement our goals?
                    ACTION PLAN 1
          ACTION PLAN 3
    Task 1
    Task 1
    Task 1
    Task 2
    Task 2
    Task 2
    Task 3
    Task 3
    Task 3
    6.0 Action

    Flexibility is to be encouraged:

    6.1 Action strategy development - examples taken from Haram Public Library
      6.1.1 Strategy 1 Young people

    External findings:
    1. Most children can read at 7.
    2. Parents more easily engaged at 6-8 years.
    3. Individual teachers, but not necessarily schools, are interested in cooperation.
    4. 11 year olds : reading competitions.
    5. Price of music has fallen sharply.
    6. 11 year olds : objective use of services.
    6. Falling video film costs.
    8. Today's young have consumer based attitudes - this need not be a negative aspect.
    9. The public sector's planning priorities for the young are entirely compatible with the library's mission and strategies.
    10. The public sector's hopes for creating an attractive environment for young women.

    Internal findings:
    1. Falling library use among 13-16 year olds.
    2. 17-19 year olds are objective users.
    3. 18/19 year olds are reflective.
    4. 18/19 year olds are the larger user age group.
    5. Early, organised membership can ease later registration.
    6. Young women aged 18 and 21 are the largest single user age groups.

    Strategy number Coordinate with 
    strategy number
    Task Contingency plans Personell Cost
    1:01 Introduce 8 year olds to the library : 
    welcome letter, story time, stimulate reading, membership card
    11 year olds
    (project work)
    Counter staff
    1:02 18/19 year olds:
    Maximize priority treatment in connection with terminal project.
    17/18 year olds
    (second year
    Librarian Minimal
    1:03 Introduce and specialize in young peoples' music tastes.
    Install headphones and
    playing facilities.
    Consider commercial
    Music librarian 
    & Public
    1. Increase music budget
    2. Installation costs
    1:04 Develop parental cooperation Parent meetings and events Children's


    6.1.2 Strategy 2 Modernisation

    External findings:
    1. Modern facilities and effective procedures influence residential relocation.
    2. Environment affects work level.
    3. Environment affects user attitudes.
    4. Health service report shows needs for improvement.

    Internal findings
    1. The need for a number of interior changes has been recorded for some time.
    2. There is a need for relocating parts of the collections.
    3. Offices are  unsatisfactory - too little light, need for group meeting facilities.
    4. Priority to childrens' subject books has lead to congestion..

    Strategy number Coordinate with
    strategy number
    Task Contingency plan Personell Costs
    2:01 1:03 1. Create music environment.
    2. Redecorate personnel room.
    3. Expand librarian's office.
    4. Smarten up the children's department and reequipe. 
    5. Develop a decorative theme throughout the library.
    Insist on a local authority improvement plan. Staff.
    Children's librarian.
    Hired personnel.
    Decoration costs.
    Joint public sector expenses.
    Local artists.


    6.1.3 Strategy 3 Information services

    External findings:
    1. The library's information function is not understood.
    2. Local authority plan an information service.
    3. Tourist information does not exist.

    Internal finding:
    1. Information service poorly defined.
    2. Local (political) information well established.
    3. Local commercial information poorly organised.
    4. The library's information aims are very wide.
    5. Great potential.

    Strategy number Coordinate with strategy number Actions Contincency plan Personell Costs
    3:01 1. Define and publicize library relevant information services. Reference/Information
    3:02 2. Agree common information goals with
    local authority.
    Press the virtue of
    the library as 
    information channel
    Chief librarian Joint public sector expenses


    6.1.4  Strategy 4 Education

    External findings:
    1. New legislation on training and further education - lifelong learning.
    2. The educational value of the library for pupils is understood.
    3. The educational value of the library for students is underestimated.
    4. Local students use the public library as an alternative.

    Internal findings:
    1. The Public Library's role in personal development remains undiminished.
    2. The Public Library's identity is forgotten when smaller units are looked upon as substitutes for school libraries.
    3. The library has registered a close connection between final year upper secondary school pupils who have profited from the library's services and later use as full-time students.
    4. Part-time decentralized students are often dissatisfied with their student library and praise the public library's services.
    5. Cooperation with individual teaching staff is more profitable than agreements with schools.

    Strategy number Coordinate with strategy number Actions Contingency plans Personell Costs
    4:01 1:02 Publicize and develop
    library services for students.
    Develop a "autodidact/self-taught"
    Senior librarian Joint costs with education 
    4:02 1:01 Develop selective, result-based cooperation with individual school staff.
    Work for school library development.
    Dispute responsibilty for library learning. Childrens' librarian.
    Senior Librarian
    Joint costs with education sector.


    6.1.5 Strategy 5 Information Technology

    External findings:

    1. The local public sector  is developing an ambitious information technology plan for schools, in cooperation with the local commercial sector.
    2. State funds available for public libraries.
    3. Public library infrastructure remains relatively static while information technology stimulates restructuring.
    4. State guidelines encouraging, but soon outdated.
    5. Regional information technology strategy is limited.
    6. Local, expensive courses in information technology tools are available.
    7. Library courses in information technology tools are expensive and limited.
    8. Library research shows that information technology is an additional and not an alternative dimension in the foreseeable future.

    Internal findings:

    1. Existing information technology development is generally ahead of present public sector  development.
    2. The library's information technology progress is appreciated by the public sector, but this development is not a part of the public sector's IT development plan.
    3. Maintaining information technolgy is straining the library's economy.
    4. Available staff competence is questionable.
    5. Acces to external competence is limited.
    6. Information technology appeals to the young.
    7. Staff structure needs adjusting.
    8. Staff sense a special relationship between culture and information technology which is particularly significant for the library.

    Strategy number Coordinate with strategy number Actions Contingency plans Personell Costs
    5:01 2:01 Introduce information technology applications.  Joint introduction. Chief librarian.
    IT librarian.
    Joint publicsector expenses.
    5:02 4:02 Restructure and coordinate new technology in relation to staff, users and existing facilities.
    Reconsider the significance of information technology for the library's future.
    Training staff.

    Chief Librarian




    5:03 Develop and contribute to a regional information technology infrastructure. Chief librarian
    IT librarian


    6.2 Task force work

    Personell are used as a task force for the particular actions in question, from internal and external findings to the results of their actions.
    An example from Strategy 1 - Young people:

    6.3 Policy scenarios

    1 The young The public sector is convinced of the library's value in it's objectives for creating a best possible environment for the young.
    The library's objectives can be integrated with the public sector's, practically and economically.
    The public sector accepts the evidence that the library is an important arena for the young. It is not prepared to make any concessions at this time, but the library's potential is noted. The library must find a strategy which exploits this observation. The public sector has planned development areas for the young. The library has no role in these plans and potentially compatible objectives are either omitted, challenged or  compromised. 
    2  Modernization The library is seen as part of the public sector's modernization objectives and will be part of it's plans. The public sector promises to look at  the library's needs, once work in other sectors 
    has been started. 
    The library must monitor developments and intervene at the right moment.
    The library is asked to budget for it's own modernization. The library must develop a strategy which highlights the incompatibility of  outdated facilities in an information society.
    3 Information services The public sector plans to improve it's information services and would like the library to help. The public sector has not looked upon the library as an information agent, but might be interested in pursuing the idea. It is not felt that the library will be able to function as the type of agent for information that the public sector is looking for.
    4 Education The library is an asset to the public sector's educational plans and is invited to contribute. The public sector is aware that the library has as educational role. It could for example take over the school libraries. The public sector will focus on schools and pick out areas of education which it will give priority to as a part of its own long term policy. The chosen areas of the educational plan do not relate directly to the library, which as a result has been omitted or forgotten.
    5 Information Technology The public sector has identified Information Technology as a central tool in its future planning for a better society.
    The public sector is receptive to the library as  an essential meeting point between culture and new technology.
    The public sector looks upon information technology as an economic and educational resource. Any positive side-effects this may have on areas of society will of course be born in mind. The public sector has committed itself to an extensive investment in specified areas, which do not include the library through policy or negligence. Until economic ability or stability are restored, the library must finance it's own investment as well as it can.
    The library has  a special mission which is compatible with the public sector's objectives. The library's objectives can be fully integrated with these.
    Strategies are developed in coordination with public sector strategy where its misson will be served.
    The library realizes that it is not given top priority,
    but is a public sector actor with assets which are not forgotten. The main strategy is to maintain and if possible develop this interest and correct the conception of the library where this does not meet the library's mission statement.
    The library's mission seems to be compatible with the public sector's mission, but there is no room for it's objectives in the public sector's economic and strategic planning. The library must pursue it's objectives through independent strategies together  with external partners. One of the strategies must be publicity aimed at the public sector.

    6.4 Specific scenarios - examples from Haram for information technology

    A specific scenario takes up a specific strategy area along the same lines as general policy

    5:01 Introduce information technology applications Independent financing and installation of technology Installation of technology to coincide with (joint application) schools Installation of technology can take place when the public sector authority has started to make installations locally.
    Contingency plans Assume and work for
    public sector recognition and economic compensation 
    Outline a policy for school - library relations:
    1. Legislation says that the school library must teacher trained staff.
    2. The public library has an etablished plan for catalogue automation which is dependent on professional library staff.
    3. The public library 
    Uncover local installation plans and outline arguments / draw up plans attached to these (examples): 
    1. Road works and fibre optic cable installations.
    2. Frame relay installations.
    3. Computer purchase agreements.
    <--- INFLUENCE
    <--- PUBLICITY


    6.5 Organisational changes

    6.6 Actions plans

    Actions plans depend on good management - operational planning.

    6.7 Documentation

    The staff should and the public may be interested in the results of the planning process.

    One can produce both a full and a  "popular" version.

    The mayor's foreward
    The manager's summary
    Mission statement
    Vision of the future
    Environmental forces
    Organisational values
    Major directions (= strategic thrusts)
    Goals, strategies, actions
    Supporting strategies
    Financial commentaries
    Performance indicators
    Review of progress
    List of technical words

    Some points are worth remembering when producing a report: