INTEGRATED STRATEGIC LIBRARY PLANNING
- combining modern library planning with the local council development programme The Haram Model -
presented by David Beadle in Trondheim at the CEPP European Library Training Programme for Librarians from East and South Europe 23.09.99
2. The internal environment - analysis of resources and operations
An internal assessment is essentially a review of the present situation and a questioning of the state of things for the future. The need for statistics and self analysis wil show itself here. Comparative analyses are very useful, and we hope that on a national level research information is easily available to libraries wanting to develope locally.
3.1 Geographical and non-geographical boundaries
3.5 Attitudes to restructuring
Inherent desire to manage or direct restructuring
The public sector has taken a leading role in regional development
The state has not withdrawn its reponsibility for local development
- Principles and strategies for maintaining the commercial sector in the districts.
- Directing the possibilties that information technology give.
- Preserving the environment.
- Regional infrastructures.
In all three sectors - public, civil and commercial - two groups will be generally active:3.6 Active forces in the 3 sectors in local/regional restructuring
- Constructive actors who want to create to a new direction
- Reactive actors who will resist change
In recent years the forces affecting the three sectors can be summed up as follows:
There is one common element which brings all three sectors together in a necessary interdependency.:
- the commercial sector has become more global.
- the civil sector remains attached to the locality that has formed it, but due to increased mobility, the nature of this attachment challenges the other sectors.
- the public sector has become more market orientated.
This forms the basis of Haram Public Library's overriding general policy:
- The quality of life and the ideal picture effect.
- Maintain an independent position in the public sector.
- Fully integrate its efforts with the common element between sectors in local planning.
- Relate more to local administration and less to local politicians.
where the library can be directly involved are shown in orange.
Haram Public Library tries to find ways in which it can base its planning policy and arguments on central public sector planning policies:
3.7 Influences behind restructuring processes
|1||1780-1830||Textiles - ready to wear clothing||Canals - steam power|
|2||1830-1880||Machine production and transport||Railways - coal|
|3||1880-1930||Electro-chemicals /Electro-engineering||Electrical grid|
|4||1930-1980||Mass production - fordism||Roads, airports - fossil energies|
|5||1980-||Information technology||Digital networks - electricity and petroleum|
||application of knowledge|
|development of knowledge|
Haram Public Library as a local actor - with or without power?
3.10.1 Culture and information technology
The public library today is in a special and priviledged position:
3.10.2 Possible target areas for the library in a local development programme
Factors that can be remembered:
3.10.5 Integating/attaching the library to local development.
What are the decision making processes locally? He may be your superior, but how much does he/she understand of these processes? He may be your superior, but how much does he/she know about libraries? Has a new post been established that will influence planning locally? Do many issues come down provincial quarrelling? Are there "deviations" of democracy making it difficult to see where the power is:
- reshuffling of local representation
- ad hoc committees
- Who are the right people?
The library chooses to be a constructive actor. The library can make a contribution to local development. The library will profit from being integrated into or simply attached to the development programme. The initiative is ours. Keep above provincial and sector quarrelling. Insist on the major developments in our time. Have scenarios for the library's development ready, so as to participate with confidence at short notice. Keep the public sector's vision and goals in mind. Emphasize common goals. Seek alliance partners: Education - individual teachers and/or schools. Social services. Project development.
- Secure places in discussion groups, create influence and alliance partners:
If the library's planning procedures are flexible adjustments can be made while integrated planning at corporate level takes place:
3.11 The question of Intranet
Some developments may pose problems or possibilties for the library.
An example can be the introduction of a public sector intranet, or the library may set up it's own intranet.
- Internal network with different sorts of adaptations according to the organisation.
- Can be several intranets, each with its own firewall, within an organisation.
- Not a management revolution, rather a rationalization of procedures.
- The organisation must be flexible and open to benefit.
- Suits best for organisations with frequent structural changes.
- Improve communication within the enterprise/library
- All staff are information technology operative
- Can bring together staff working far apart
- Transparency usually increases effectivity
- Everyone can follow weekly, monthly, quarterly results, holidays etc.
- New staff equally orientated as "old hands".
- Not everyone has access necessarily
- Transparency can seem intimidating
- Not everyone manages to keep up with the technolgy or interpret the language
Intranet in Haram
- Schools only - intranet in the classrooms and staff rooms only
- Access to internet through the same computers and elsewhere
The Public Library
- 4 Public Library branches are attached to the schools frame relay connections in school buiding.
- Unable to subscribe to a number of bases requiring passwords due to firewall.
- We will probably choose to subsribe alone.
3.12 Conclusion : relating to the external environment
- Restructuring is a dominant theme, and it raises the question of infrastructures.
- Restructuring creates new phases for development and new strategies.
- A number of forces have led to new life/optimism for the region/locality.
- Initiative today is local.
- Local initaitive is dependent on and contributes to a stronger region.
- Regions differ and compete.
- Influence and liberalisme are more important than power structure planning at all levels.
- The library is an established, valuable social and cultural activity which contributes to the quality of life.
- Developments within public sector planning create opening for the library to take part actively.
- The conditions for getting support for the library's mission in local planning are better today than for some time.
3.13 Diagram of internal and external environment factors in library planning
4. Regional and local planning
COMMERCIAL SECTOR ENVIRONMENT
PUBLIC SECTOR ENVIRONMENT
\ | / MARKET RESEARCH
| Opportunities Strengths
LOCAL REGIONAL Responsibilty for individual citizens Responsibilty for advising or coordinating library services Cooperation with local partners Cooperation with regional partners (eg. university) Support for local library initiatives Support for specialist libraries Record specialist needs Coordinating specialist staff Record special needs Arrange library training Promote library training Marketing Local publicity Provision for special groups (blind etc.) Coordination with educational initiatives Coordination with educational plans Record perceived trends Identify trends (e.g. literary needs) Local history collection Local historical depot Local network development Technical network development Staff training Professional network development Development programmes Personnel meetings Arrange conferences Interpret regional directives Interpret national directives Local planning Regional planning
5. Library strategy development
Our planning has to make statements which must not be confused:
Values Vision Mission Objectives Goals Strategies
5.1 ValuesStatements about "us"Professional values - beliefs and guiding principles:5.2 Vision
Management values - our way of doing things:
- service to the individual and the community - social responsibility
- pursuit of truth
- advancement of knowledge
- universal access to information
- the need for privacy - integrity
- preservation of cultural heritage
- competence and professional development. - creativity
- top internal and external service
- staff development
- creativityWhere statement: Where are we going? What is our role in an integrated society? If only we could?5.3 Mission
- Defining a position in society : the library as a meeting place between culture and information technology.
- Defining a role in society : the library as a leisure service - quality of life.
- Projecting expertise : the library's expertise locally in providing information.
- Projecting personal development : The library as an educational resource.
How statement: What is our mission? If the answer is to provide information, enlightenment, and educationour mission statement must say something about the library which the bookshop or the cybercafe does or cannot say.
5.4 Objectives : functional objectives
The mission statement, which can vary a lot in length, should be:
- real, not remote from reality
- understandable and memorable for public and staff
- concise, yet complete
- relevant and alive, rather than sacrosanct and unchangeable.
- "The public library is a major community service which provides free information for all types of users who wish in some way to further their knowlege and understanding and enrich their leisure time."
More sentences may follow which focus and elaborate with keywords:
- participation, culture, democracy, leisure/free time, reading/literacy, film criticism, information search, informal, education, enlightenment, stimulation, creation, retrieval, open society, tolerance, unprejudiced.
The mission statement should contain words that are also found frequently in the local/regional plan. The mision statement has to linik to objectves
- Integrating computer technology in the library is a clear example
- Long term objectives are functional objectives which relate clearly to themission statement.
- Objectives can be integrated with local/regional policy, highlighting the library's special role at the same time as it can be translated as a part of the community effort.
- These objectives are key activities, just how many there will be is related to resources.
- It is at this level that priorities are first made. Further priorities will be made at the goals level. This example is from a small library:5.5 Strategy objectives and Goals
Formulating objective is demanding. At this level the spectrum of planning from mission to task can be viewed:
MISSION STATEMENT FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES CHOSING STRATEGIES (examples only) Understanding Community focal point The library infrastructure MAY include smaller units to maintain customer service OR larger units to maintain complete services. Quality of life Culture Customers can be individuals OR families OR ethnic groups. Information Information Community Information OR Reference Service OR Tourisme OR Business information Knowledge Education Independent, lifelong learning OR Literacy OR Schools OR Students Leisure Leisure The library MAY be judged by the size of its resources OR by accuracy and speed of delivery. Stimulation Networking Meeting place OR Club OR Course centre OR Discussion groups Everybody Access 24 hrs electronic OR convenient hours at physical site OR both
Information technolgy as an example
5.5.1 Specifying strategy objectives/goals = formulating tasks
- The Goals statement answers the question "where are we going with our functional objective?"
- Installing information/computer technology in the library is a strategic objective or goal. This is the consequence of identifying the functional objective of integrating the library into and making the library part of information services for the public and civil sectors, in line with the library's mission.
- When installing information technology is a logical consequence of the mission and the functional objective, we avoid introducing computer technology just because we feel we have to have it.
- If integrating computer technology can be seen to advance these planning areas, it is a sign that the library is ready for computer technolgy.
- Goals/strategic objectives are formulated on the basis of information which we found during our environmental analysis.
- On the management side, the goals to be formulated should meet certain criteria:
- compatible with the vision and mission
- clear, concise, unambiguous language
- realistic and attainable
- the goal is clearly desired, rather than the activity in reaching it
- acceptable to those who will work with achieving the goals
- the goals can be translated into precise, measurable targets.
- depend on straetgies
- Making the library a modern and attractive place for the young.
- Catering for their taste.
- Creating an environment.
- Indentifying facilities.
- Investment areas.
- Their development.
- Their ages.
- Establish the library as an educational agent.
- Cooperation with schools.
- Cooperation with university libraries.
- Further Education / Lifelong learning.
- Integrate the library into public and civil sector information services.
- Define information technology installations.
- Define staff competence.
- Develop information strategy.The strategiey statement answers the question "how are we going to carry through our goals?"
- Flexibilty and ongoing adjustment to realities.
- When the strategies are decided, the goals are confirmed.
- The strategy is the last stage before we actually start working on our objectives.5.7 Summary of planning stages
Aspiration : Where do we
want to be?
Beliefs : How are our ways of doing things?
Purpose: What is our business? who are our customers
| FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
Why are we here? What do we do?
Chosen objectives. Priorities.
Directions: Where are we going?
How shall we implement our goals?
| \ ACTION PLAN 1 ACTION PLAN 2 ACTION PLAN 3 Task 1 Task 1 Task 1 Task 2 Task 2 Task 2 Task 3 Task 3 Task 36.0 Action
Flexibility is to be encouraged:
6.1 Action strategy development - examples taken from Haram Public Library
- options are desirable
- staff participation is important
- a change of plan does not mean failure
- Systematic approach
- A planning team
- the current situation
- the target in question
- what has prevented progress
- key ideas which need to be resolved
- what exactly has to be done, by whom, by when?
- the question of evaluation
- New ideas emerge to be considered by the planning team. Therefore strategy evaluation poses questions that help us plan thoroughly and can make us work better:
6.1.1 Strategy 1 Young people
- Is the strategy consistent with organisational objectives and values?
- Is it understandable?
- Will it support external environmental changes?
- Are the necessary financial, human and physical resources available?
- Will it give results?
- Is the timescale reasonable?
- Is it in conflict with other objectives?
- Is there any risk or could someone be put at a disadvantage?
- The need to consider contingency plans or alternatives in certain areas.
1. Most children can read at 7.
2. Parents more easily engaged at 6-8 years.
3. Individual teachers, but not necessarily schools, are interested in cooperation.
4. 11 year olds : reading competitions.
5. Price of music has fallen sharply.
6. 11 year olds : objective use of services.
6. Falling video film costs.
8. Today's young have consumer based attitudes - this need not be a negative aspect.
9. The public sector's planning priorities for the young are entirely compatible with the library's mission and strategies.
10. The public sector's hopes for creating an attractive environment for young women.
1. Falling library use among 13-16 year olds.
2. 17-19 year olds are objective users.
3. 18/19 year olds are reflective.
4. 18/19 year olds are the larger user age group.
5. Early, organised membership can ease later registration.
6. Young women aged 18 and 21 are the largest single user age groups.
Strategy number Coordinate with
Task Contingency plans Personell Cost 1:01 Introduce 8 year olds to the library :
welcome letter, story time, stimulate reading, membership card
11 year olds
Minimal 1:02 18/19 year olds:
Maximize priority treatment in connection with terminal project.
17/18 year olds
Librarian Minimal 1:03 Introduce and specialize in young peoples' music tastes.
Install headphones and
1. Increase music budget
2. Installation costs
1:04 Develop parental cooperation Parent meetings and events Children's
6.1.2 Strategy 2 Modernisation
1. Modern facilities and effective procedures influence residential relocation.
2. Environment affects work level.
3. Environment affects user attitudes.
4. Health service report shows needs for improvement.
1. The need for a number of interior changes has been recorded for some time.
2. There is a need for relocating parts of the collections.
3. Offices are unsatisfactory - too little light, need for group meeting facilities.
4. Priority to childrens' subject books has lead to congestion..
Strategy number Coordinate with
Task Contingency plan Personell Costs 2:01 1:03 1. Create music environment.
2. Redecorate personnel room.
3. Expand librarian's office.
4. Smarten up the children's department and reequipe.
5. Develop a decorative theme throughout the library.
Insist on a local authority improvement plan. Staff.
Joint public sector expenses.
6.1.3 Strategy 3 Information services
1. The library's information function is not understood.
2. Local authority plan an information service.
3. Tourist information does not exist.
1. Information service poorly defined.
2. Local (political) information well established.
3. Local commercial information poorly organised.
4. The library's information aims are very wide.
5. Great potential.
Strategy number Coordinate with strategy number Actions Contincency plan Personell Costs 3:01 1. Define and publicize library relevant information services. Reference/Information
Low 3:02 2. Agree common information goals with
Press the virtue of
the library as
Chief librarian Joint public sector expenses
6.1.4 Strategy 4 Education
1. New legislation on training and further education - lifelong learning.
2. The educational value of the library for pupils is understood.
3. The educational value of the library for students is underestimated.
4. Local students use the public library as an alternative.
1. The Public Library's role in personal development remains undiminished.
2. The Public Library's identity is forgotten when smaller units are looked upon as substitutes for school libraries.
3. The library has registered a close connection between final year upper secondary school pupils who have profited from the library's services and later use as full-time students.
4. Part-time decentralized students are often dissatisfied with their student library and praise the public library's services.
5. Cooperation with individual teaching staff is more profitable than agreements with schools.
Strategy number Coordinate with strategy number Actions Contingency plans Personell Costs 4:01 1:02 Publicize and develop
library services for students.
Develop a "autodidact/self-taught"
Senior librarian Joint costs with education
4:02 1:01 Develop selective, result-based cooperation with individual school staff.
Work for school library development.
Dispute responsibilty for library learning. Childrens' librarian.
Joint costs with education sector.
6.1.5 Strategy 5 Information Technology
1. The local public sector is developing an ambitious information technology plan for schools, in cooperation with the local commercial sector.
2. State funds available for public libraries.
3. Public library infrastructure remains relatively static while information technology stimulates restructuring.
4. State guidelines encouraging, but soon outdated.
5. Regional information technology strategy is limited.
6. Local, expensive courses in information technology tools are available.
7. Library courses in information technology tools are expensive and limited.
8. Library research shows that information technology is an additional and not an alternative dimension in the foreseeable future.
1. Existing information technology development is generally ahead of present public sector development.
2. The library's information technology progress is appreciated by the public sector, but this development is not a part of the public sector's IT development plan.
3. Maintaining information technolgy is straining the library's economy.
4. Available staff competence is questionable.
5. Acces to external competence is limited.
6. Information technology appeals to the young.
7. Staff structure needs adjusting.
8. Staff sense a special relationship between culture and information technology which is particularly significant for the library.
Strategy number Coordinate with strategy number Actions Contingency plans Personell Costs 5:01 2:01 Introduce information technology applications. Joint introduction. Chief librarian.
Joint publicsector expenses.
5:02 4:02 Restructure and coordinate new technology in relation to staff, users and existing facilities.
Reconsider the significance of information technology for the library's future.
5:03 Develop and contribute to a regional information technology infrastructure. Chief librarian
6.2 Task force work
Personell are used as a task force for the particular actions in question, from internal and external findings to the results of their actions.
An example from Strategy 1 - Young people:
6.3 Policy scenarios
- Strategy planning contains some contingency plans.
- Scenarios are based on the library's perception of external development.
- These involve both general and strategic adaptations.
- Depend the public sector's understanding of and attitudes to the library.
STRATEGY SCENARIO 1 SCENARIO 2 SCENARIO 3 1 The young The public sector is convinced of the library's value in it's objectives for creating a best possible environment for the young.
The library's objectives can be integrated with the public sector's, practically and economically.
The public sector accepts the evidence that the library is an important arena for the young. It is not prepared to make any concessions at this time, but the library's potential is noted. The library must find a strategy which exploits this observation. The public sector has planned development areas for the young. The library has no role in these plans and potentially compatible objectives are either omitted, challenged or compromised. 2 Modernization The library is seen as part of the public sector's modernization objectives and will be part of it's plans. The public sector promises to look at the library's needs, once work in other sectors
has been started.
The library must monitor developments and intervene at the right moment.
The library is asked to budget for it's own modernization. The library must develop a strategy which highlights the incompatibility of outdated facilities in an information society. 3 Information services The public sector plans to improve it's information services and would like the library to help. The public sector has not looked upon the library as an information agent, but might be interested in pursuing the idea. It is not felt that the library will be able to function as the type of agent for information that the public sector is looking for. 4 Education The library is an asset to the public sector's educational plans and is invited to contribute. The public sector is aware that the library has as educational role. It could for example take over the school libraries. The public sector will focus on schools and pick out areas of education which it will give priority to as a part of its own long term policy. The chosen areas of the educational plan do not relate directly to the library, which as a result has been omitted or forgotten. 5 Information Technology The public sector has identified Information Technology as a central tool in its future planning for a better society.
The public sector is receptive to the library as an essential meeting point between culture and new technology.
The public sector looks upon information technology as an economic and educational resource. Any positive side-effects this may have on areas of society will of course be born in mind. The public sector has committed itself to an extensive investment in specified areas, which do not include the library through policy or negligence. Until economic ability or stability are restored, the library must finance it's own investment as well as it can. LIBRARY STRATEGY The library has a special mission which is compatible with the public sector's objectives. The library's objectives can be fully integrated with these.
Strategies are developed in coordination with public sector strategy where its misson will be served.
The library realizes that it is not given top priority,
but is a public sector actor with assets which are not forgotten. The main strategy is to maintain and if possible develop this interest and correct the conception of the library where this does not meet the library's mission statement.
The library's mission seems to be compatible with the public sector's mission, but there is no room for it's objectives in the public sector's economic and strategic planning. The library must pursue it's objectives through independent strategies together with external partners. One of the strategies must be publicity aimed at the public sector. GENERAL LIBRARY POLICY INDEPENDENT INTEGRATION <--- INFLUENCE <--- PUBLICITY
6.4 Specific scenarios - examples from Haram for information technology
A specific scenario takes up a specific strategy area along the same lines as general policy
STRATEGY NUMBER SCENARIO 1 SCENARIO 2 SCENARIO 3 5:01 Introduce information technology applications Independent financing and installation of technology Installation of technology to coincide with (joint application) schools Installation of technology can take place when the public sector authority has started to make installations locally. Contingency plans Assume and work for
public sector recognition and economic compensation
Outline a policy for school - library relations:
1. Legislation says that the school library must teacher trained staff.
2. The public library has an etablished plan for catalogue automation which is dependent on professional library staff.
3. The public library
Uncover local installation plans and outline arguments / draw up plans attached to these (examples):
1. Road works and fibre optic cable installations.
2. Frame relay installations.
3. Computer purchase agreements.
<--- INFLUENCE <--- PUBLICITY
6.5 Organisational changes
6.6 Actions plans
- Existing procedures and praticices may have to be changed in order to accomodate the implications of policy and resources during the planning process.
- The changes to the library's organisation may affect the rest of the public sector.
- Pursuit of structural changes is usually regarded as a good sign.
- Models for organisational strategy.
- Primary level
- Systems : reporting, budgeting, accounting, meeting
- Strategy : resource allocation methods to reach goals over time
- Structure : the library's organisational chart
- Key level
- Shared values : spiritual fabric, guiding concepts, purposes and aspirations of the library and it's staff
- Skills : the special abilities that the library and its individual staff members have
- Style . how the managers behave
- Staff : important personnal categories
- Actions plans cover specific areas and are made up of tasks , as above.
- The action plan should provide information about who is doing what and when.
- It should be possible to see results.
- Action plans provide the basis for budget ajustments.
Actions plans depend on good management - operational planning.
- Warning signs
- Lack of connectivity between planning and the tasks being carried out.
- confusion over priorities
- excessive workloads
- imbalance between longer-term objectives and day-to-day activity.
- Relationship between "business as usual" and strategy implementation:
- staff must be orientated
- staff encouragement
- operational plan overview
- Year to year planning:
- it helps to regard the first year as a trial year with staff feedback
- strategy planning should coincide with the budget year
- evaluation and monitoring takes time.
- evaluation at all levels
- monthly, quaterly?
- monitoring of the external environment
- to be integrated with public sector long-term planning
- performance evaluation - the ability to measure
The staff should and the public may be interested in the results of the planning process.
- The public sector and partners should be interested.
- The press could be made to be interested.
- Useful tool
One can produce both a full and a "popular" version.
FULL VERSION POPULAR VERSION The mayor's foreward X The manager's summary X Mission statement X X Vision of the future X Environmental forces X X Organisational values X X Major directions (= strategic thrusts) X Goals, strategies, actions X X Supporting strategies X Financial commentaries X X Statistics X Performance indicators X Review of progress X X List of technical words X
Some points are worth remembering when producing a report:
- not too much detail - especially about internal environment
- must relate/be integrated with the public sector's mission and objectives
- several contributors, but one editor
- reduce technical language - put use it where it can be interpreted by specialized partners - education, information technology, social services
- give the report a title, quoting the mission or a special value
- user-friendly format